Can a Married Couple Claim Individual Bankruptcy?

By Tom Streissguth

If you are married but have unmanageable debts, you can file for bankruptcy protection as a couple or as an individual. To qualify for a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, you must list income and assets of the entire household; if you don't meet the legal guidelines, you may be able to file for a Chapter 13 repayment plan. In both cases, property included in the bankruptcy may be separate from property of the non-bankrupt spouse. One crucial consideration in a separate filing is whether you live in a state that recognizes community property or common-law property. You may want the help of an attorney or legal document service, given the complexity of not just the bankruptcy filing, but also the difficulty of classifying property.

If you are married but have unmanageable debts, you can file for bankruptcy protection as a couple or as an individual. To qualify for a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, you must list income and assets of the entire household; if you don't meet the legal guidelines, you may be able to file for a Chapter 13 repayment plan. In both cases, property included in the bankruptcy may be separate from property of the non-bankrupt spouse. One crucial consideration in a separate filing is whether you live in a state that recognizes community property or common-law property. You may want the help of an attorney or legal document service, given the complexity of not just the bankruptcy filing, but also the difficulty of classifying property.

Community Property States

In a community property state, all property that you acquired during the marriage is considered jointly owned, or marital property. Any property you owned individually before the marriage, or property that was a gift or inheritance during the marriage, is separately owned. You must include all property in which you have an interest -- including marital property -- in the bankruptcy estate. In a Chapter 7 case, the estate is subject to seizure and liquidation by the bankruptcy trustee. The community property states are Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington and Wisconsin. In Alaska, a couple may establish a community-property marriage by signing an agreement.

Get a free, confidential bankruptcy evaluation. Learn More

Common-Law Property States

In a common-law property state, property that you own individually remains your sole property, even if you acquired the property while married. Your spouse's individual property, as in a community property state, remains outside of the bankruptcy estate. Property owned jointly is included in the estate. In community and common-law property states, federal and state laws govern which property is exempt, meaning it can't be seized. In some states, you must choose the state exemptions, while in others you may choose either state or federal.

Non-Exempt Property

The court has the authority to determine what property is separate or marital -- in most marriages, the legal owner of property, such as cash in a bank account, is often difficult to determine. The Chapter 7 bankruptcy trustee has the authority to seize and liquidate property that is not exempt under the law. However, he must reimburse your spouse for half of the value if he takes this step. Your spouse can argue that the loss of the property would be a serious financial detriment or create an unjustified financial hardship, and request a court hearing if the matter can't be settled.

Discharge of Debts

An individual bankruptcy will end with a discharge, or cancellation, of all debts. This does not include certain protected creditors, such as the IRS, state taxes, federally guaranteed student loans and child support agencies. If you are married, any debts held jointly are discharged only for the bankruptcy petitioner, not for the spouse; the spouse's obligation to repay his share of the debt survives, even if your portion of the debt is discharged through the bankruptcy proceeding.

Get a free, confidential bankruptcy evaluation. Learn More
What Can I Keep if My Husband Files Bankruptcy but I Don't?

References

Related articles

Things to Know Before Filing for Bankruptcy in Hawaii

Bankruptcy can be a good option for those who feel overwhelmed by debt, though bankruptcy isn’t for every situation. For example, you must be a resident of Hawaii for 90 days before filing. In addition, your options in the state are different than those in other states since Hawaii has its own wage and exemption standards. If you decide to file a bankruptcy case, an attorney or online legal services provider can help.

How Much of Your Tax Refund Do You Have to Give the Bankruptcy Trustee in Illinois?

Filing for bankruptcy in Illinois, as elsewhere, means petitioning a federal bankruptcy court for debt relief and protection. You can either surrender assets to repay creditors, through a Chapter 7 proceeding, or set up a repayment plan, through a Chapter 13 bankruptcy. If you have a refund coming from the IRS, you'll need to inform the court-appointed trustee handling your case. In some instances, you must surrender the refund; in others, you may be able to keep all or part of it.

Bankruptcy During Divorce Proceedings

Filing for bankruptcy before a divorce has been finalized will complicate the divorce settlement. While state law governs divorce, bankruptcy is a federal procedure that shields the petitioner(s) from some, but not all, of the debts incurred during and before the marriage. If you are considering a bankruptcy before a family law court finalizes a marital settlement agreement, you will have to carefully consider the division of property and the assignment of debts between you and your spouse, as well as the obligation of each of you to settle with creditors after the marriage ends.

Related articles

California Laws on Community Property in a Bankruptcy

California is one of only nine community property states in the U.S. Married spouses who live in those state shares ...

How to List Your Spouse in a Bankruptcy to Discharge Community Debt

For spouses who live in community property states, most property and debts acquired during the marriage are considered ...

Can I File for Bankruptcy With My Spouse If We Already Filed for Divorce?

You can file for bankruptcy with your spouse after you have filed for divorce as long as the divorce has not become ...

What Can Happen if I Don't Give My Income Tax Refund to the Trustee After Bankruptcy?

Once you file for bankruptcy, there are certain rules you must follow throughout the process. For example, you must ...

Browse by category