State Laws on Wills

By Beverly Bird

While all states have their own legislation regarding wills, the laws tend to be similar in most jurisdictions. For instance, all states accept statutory wills, prepared by an attorney or printed by the maker to follow a specified legal format, and most states prevent spouses from being totally disinherited, though how much they can receive can vary. Because of this variance, when making your will it may be best to consult a lawyer who's familiar with the specific statutes in your state.

While all states have their own legislation regarding wills, the laws tend to be similar in most jurisdictions. For instance, all states accept statutory wills, prepared by an attorney or printed by the maker to follow a specified legal format, and most states prevent spouses from being totally disinherited, though how much they can receive can vary. Because of this variance, when making your will it may be best to consult a lawyer who's familiar with the specific statutes in your state.

Mental Capacity

All states require you to be of “sound mind” when making your will. Though the exact language varies, you must essentially have an understanding of what you are doing. But the threshold of that understanding is not very high, and the mental capacity necessary to make and sign a will is significantly less than that required for other legal documents.

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Age

Most states require that you be at least 18 years of age to make a will, but there are exceptions. For instance, in Georgia, you must only be 14, and some states allow persons younger than 18 to make a will if they are or were married or are in the armed forces.

Acceptable Formats

Almost all states require that wills be in writing, but some accept nuncupative, or oral, wills, as well. Also called deathbed wills, testators speak them aloud to two witnesses when death is imminent. Most states that do accept these wills limit the amount of property transferred this way. Some limit who can make them. For instance, in New York, only members of the armed forces and merchant marines can bequeath property this way. As of 2010, 26 states also accept holographic, or entirely handwritten, wills -- with varying requirements regarding witnesses -- if they are written in the testator’s own handwriting.

Spouses’s Rights

As of 2010, all states except Georgia protect spouses from disinheritance through “elective share” laws. If you leave your spouse out of your will, either intentionally or by not updating it after you marry, he is entitled to instead elect to take a percentage of your estate determined by the laws where you live. In some states it is half of your estate, and in others it is one-third.

Disinheriting Children

Most states allow you to disinherit a child, but also have laws that give your child a portion of your estate if you disinherit her simply by omitting her from your will or if you die without making one. If this is your intention, state the name of your child and your specific wish that she not inherit from you to avoid her contesting your will later.

Revocation by Marriage or Divorce

If you neglect to update your will or make a new one after you divorce, most states protect you against your spouse inheriting anyway by extinguishing all bequests to him and appointment as executor as of the date of your divorce decree. The exception is if you specifically state in your will that you want him to inherit anyway. Some states also nullify or revoke your will if you marry after making it if you don’t state your intention to marry anywhere in its terms. However, elective share laws would cover your new spouse in this event.

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Laws on Wills in the State of New York

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Wills in Maine

Maine’s statutes regarding wills are on par with other states. You must be of sound mind and at least 18 years old to make a will in the state, and your signature requires two witnesses. Maine allows your witnesses to also be beneficiaries. Self-proved wills are accepted and eligible for simplified probate proceedings after your death. To self-prove your will, you and your witnesses must sign a second sworn statement indicating that it is authentic, and attach the statement to the will.

What Effect Does a Divorce Have on a Will in Georgia?

Georgia is the only state, as of 2010, to allow a testator, or the person making a will, to disinherit a spouse. This makes the state one of the safest places to get a divorce from the perspective of planning your estate. There is no window of time when a spouse can be granted part of your estate if you die while you are separated or your divorce is in progress but before it is final.

Wills in Oregon

Each state has unique laws governing estates and wills. In Oregon, you can disinherit anyone except your spouse. If you disinherit your child, however, speak to an attorney to make sure you clearly state that in your will, as you cannot disinherit a child by omission: Oregon law presumes you forgot to mention a child who is not in your will, and may award the child a share of your estate equal to that which your other children receive.

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