LLC Perpetual vs. Indefinite

By Elizabeth Rayne

Regulations for limited liability companies (LLCs) are determined by the state in which the company is located. Most states give LLCs the option to create either a perpetual or indefinite company at the time of incorporation. The decision between the two structures will be determined by the type of business and your goals for the LLC.

Perpetual LLC

A perpetual LLC, also known as an at-will company, does not have a specified length of existence. An at-will LLC will exist until one of the members disassociates, or the owners decide to dissolve the company. Unless otherwise specified in the company's organizing documents, an LLC is automatically an at-will company.

Indefinite LLC

An indefinite LLC, or a term company, exists for a particular length of time and then has the option to dissolve. The time of dissolution may refer to a specific date, or the completion of a particular event. For example, a term LLC may decide to dissolve 10 years after filing the organizing documents, or after a particular real estate asset is sold. In some states, the owners of the term LLC have a legal obligation to work for the company until the term is complete. Unlike an at-will LLC, the LLC may continue to operate after an owner leaves if the term is not complete. If a term LLC continues to operate after the expiration of the term, the company is converted into a perpetual LLC.

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Creating a Perpetual or Indefinite LLC

An LLC is usually created by filing the articles of incorporation with the secretary of state in the state where the company is located. The articles will include the name, contact information and information about the nature of the business. In the articles, you will specify if your company is a perpetual or indefinite LLC. Most LLCs also have operating agreements which are not filed with the state. An operating agreement details how the business will be managed, who provides what assets, and how profits will be distributed. The agreement should include whether the company is at-will or term. If it is a term company, the agreement should be as specific as possible about the events that will dissolve the LLC, and if the dissolution will be automatic or if the owners have the option to turn the LLC into an at-will company.

Dissolving an LLC

Whether an LLC is perpetual or indefinite will have an impact on the process for dissolving the company. In a term LLC, the members are responsible for ensuring that the "winding up" of the company's activities are completed in time for the dissolution event. This includes paying debts, distributing profits, and addressing any outstanding taxes for the LLC. In a perpetual LLC, the operating agreement will generally determine how the company may be dissolved, which usually requires a majority vote by the owners. A perpetual LLC must pay debts and distribute profits but generally will have a more relaxed time frame to do so.

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Maryland's LLC Dissolution Law

By properly dissolving your limited liability company, you can ensure that creditors and state agencies are notified and your finances and professional reputation are protected. An LLC is a common business structure that combines the management flexibility of a partnership with the limited liability of a corporation. The operating agreement or articles of organization may provide when and how the LLC may be dissolved and how you should distribute its assets. Maryland law regulates how LLCs are dissolved if not spelled out in the operating agreement.

What Is an LLC Termination Date?

Forming a limited liability company, or LLC, creates a separate legal entity for your business. The primary reason to form an LLC is to shield you from the debts and liabilities incurred by the business. Your LLC will continue to exist until it is terminated according to the requirements of your state’s LLC laws. In some states, you can set the termination date at the time you form the LLC.

Can I Use a Bank Account After Dissolving an LLC?

Using your limited liability company's bank account after dissolution is essential to wind up the affairs of the LLC, but you cannot use it to enter into new business. An LLC is an independent business entity formed under state law, which also controls how an LLC comes into existence and how it goes out of business. By following the correct steps for dissolution, you will ensure that you have satisfied all the debts and obligations of the company.

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