What Are the Qualifications for an Executor for an Estate?

By Wayne Thomas

Executors play a vital role in ensuring that your property passes according to your wishes after death. It is the job of the executor to collect your property, pay your outstanding debts and distribute your remaining assets through a court-supervised process known as probate. Although states have some basic legal requirements for executors, other qualities, such as financial responsibility and trustworthiness, are often considered most important by will makers when choosing whom to appoint for this important task.

Personal Representatives

Although states vary on the specific terminology used when referring to probate proceedings, the term executor generally applies only to the person or institution that you appoint in your will. If you die without a valid will in place or the individual you appoint does not qualify or is unwilling to serve, the probate court appoints what is known as an administrator to carry out the same duties. In most states, both executors and administrators are often referred to under the umbrella term personal representative.


The qualifications for who may serve as your executor are generally not very strict. Most states require that an individual executor be an adult, typically 18 years old, and be mentally competent. Some states also require that your executor not be a felon, and that any corporation appointed to serve be duly authorized by the state to handle probate. If the person or institution you name does not meet these qualifications, the court will deny the appointment. If an executor becomes disqualified while serving, such as being convicted of a felony, that event is grounds for removal by the court.

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Practical Considerations

In some cases, an executor who qualifies to serve may be affected by other rules. For example, many states do not require that your executor be a resident of the state where probate is administered. However, it is not uncommon for state law to require a local co-executor to be appointed for receiving official correspondence from the court. Also, some states do not waive the bond requirement for out-of-state executors, and traveling back and forth may lead to additional reimbursement costs to be paid from the estate. Practical considerations such as these may indirectly limit who you choose to serve as executor of your estate.

Executor Responsibility

Executors exercise significant discretion and control over your assets while probate is pending. For this reason, state law requires every executor to act in the best interests of both your estate and those entitled to receive property under your will, known as beneficiaries. This duty is referred to as the fiduciary responsibility and requires the executor to refrain self-dealing such as investing your property in his personal business. In cases where an executor has abused his role, a court may order his removal and hold him personally liable for any damages. This can cause serious delays in the probate process and potentially unrecoverable losses to the beneficiaries. Understanding the character of the person you are considering to serve as your executor before you make the appointment can help avoid mismanagement of your estate.

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Who Is Designated to Carry Out the Terms of a Will?


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Who Enforces the Execution of a Will?

In drafting your will, you may appoint a person to serve as your executor, also known as a personal representative. This person will have the responsibility of carrying out your wishes pursuant to the will. Because the executor has a number of responsibilities and can be held personally responsible if they are not properly carried out, carefully consider appointing someone who is trustworthy and capable of carrying out the somewhat complicated probate process.

Residency Requirements for Estate Executors

The appointment of an executor is a fundamental part of the probate process, requiring both practical considerations and legal compliance. Executors are named by the deceased person in a will, or appointed by the court as administrators if no valid will exists. State law varies on who can be appointed, with some states placing restrictions on nonresident executors. Understanding the qualifications necessary to serve as an executor in your state ensures debts are paid and assets properly distributed to the beneficiaries under your will.

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