Sole Custody and Shared Custody
A court often orders sole custody to one parent or shared custody to both parents. Sole custody may refer to legal custody, physical custody or both. Legal custody allows a parent to make all legal decisions for the child. Major legal decisions may involve financial, medical, educational and religious matters. Physical custody refers to where the child lives. It allows a parent to physically take care of the child, arrange child care, plan educational activities, change residences and travel abroad. The court may order sole legal custody with shared physical custody, joint legal custody with sole physical custody or make other custody arrangements.
Legal Custody and Physical Custody
If a court orders sole custody and final say without distinguishing legal or physical custody, the court order may refer to both legal and physical custody. The statement must be viewed within the context of the entire court document. If the court order does not outline any type of shared physical or joint legal custody, the court may not intend to award any form of custody to the other parent. The court order may include reasons why sole custody with the final say has been awarded to one parent or why custody has been denied to the other parent.
Sole Custody and Final Say
The parent with sole custody and the final say may potentially make both legal and physical decisions regarding the minor child's health and welfare without consulting the other parent. A court order for sole custody with the final say can be temporary or permanent. If an absent or abusive parent abandons all parental responsibilities, that parent could lose all custodial rights, including legal and physical custody permanently. However, if the negligent parent completes court-ordered anger management classes, enters a treatment plan or catches up on child support payments, the temporary court order could change based on those conditions. Generally, child custody orders may be appealed or amended within a legal time limit, unless the court order is final. Court rules vary state to state.
Non-Custodial Parent's Rights
A parent that loses all custodial rights may be referred to as a non-custodial parent. A non-custodial parent does not possess primary custody of the minor child. However, the non-custodial parent still maintains parental rights, in most cases. Even without physical and legal custody, a parent generally has a right to reasonable visitation and frequent contact with the child. Although the parent with sole custody and the final say has authority to make all final decisions regarding the child, she may still need to keep in contact with the non-custodial parent.